Vepar the demon spirit of Augustus’s tenth

How useful are the spirit lists for identifying what each spirit does?  Where they are given descriptions, they are often at odds and we are left with trying to find references to the limited amounts of symbolism we are given. What I found was that some of this symbolism might be a little obscure.

Vepar is a demonic spirit whose name means “Boar.” Yet the spirit lists describe him appearing as a mermaid who is a “guide of the waters” and in charge of shipping weapons and infecting wounds. What does that have to do with a boar? How does infecting wounds, so they kill people in three days become part of the remit for a spirit who guides troop ships?

It is a little more possible to flesh out details when you apply decan meanings (particularly the GD ones which would give you Saturn in Taurus) but this is artificial and probably off track.  The symbols do give us some clues and might point at the spirit’s source.

Searching for Vepar, I came across one source which I had not thought of. Roman Legion unit names and symbols. These unit symbols were often packed with symbols for many different reasons.

One of my researches though down the Vepar symbolism found the Legio X Fretensis (“Tenth Legion of the Strait”) was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It got its name from a battle it won in the Strait of Messina although it also was part of the fleet that won the Battle of Actium.

This Roman legion had the symbols of the bull, a ship, the god Neptune, and a boar. The Bull might be because the unit was formed when the sun was in Taurus or because it was a symbol of Venus (who was Augustus’s family spirit).

Either way, we have the full set – sea, troop ship, boar, Taurus, and Venus. It also was part of the army which destroyed Jerusalem.  It garrisoned the city for at least 200 years afterwards.  It might be that the spirit lists had somehow demonised the Roman legion which helped destroy the “holy city” and because a symbol of a pagan boot on the throat of Jews and Christians living in the area.  When Legio X Fretensis and the other Roman legions celebrated their victory they did so for three days, according to Josephus.

21ST CENTURY MAGIC – a lecture given at the XVIII Foro ACCE in Nerja

The following is the speech I wrote for the XVIII Foro ACCE in Nerja Spain in 2017. In fact I tinkered with the talk considerably “on the fly” to adjust for the audience. I went over time and was only about half way through what follows. Still it was a great time, and my first time in Spain.

Magicians living in the 21st century are living in a time of transformation where the structures upon which magic is built are changing. Magic has emerged from an effective 2000-year-old slumber where practitioners lived in fear of their neighbours reporting them to the authorities. There was a flowering at the end of the 19th century with the likes of the Golden dawn, Alister Crowley and Dion Fortune, this nearly died out after WW2 until the late 1960s when it resurrected itself again in the 1980s.

But this current situation magic might not remain and in fact the movement might move underground again.  Any current renaissance you might see is doomed unless there are some major changes in the way that magicians see themselves and the society which surrounds them

The 20th century magical revolution failed because of several key reasons.  It was over-laden with baggage from the Christian dark-ages, including masonic and theosophical structures, it watered itself down under the influence of the New Thought or New Age movement and it secularised too much under the chaos and psychological magical models.

The result is a quasi-institutionalised hierarchical system, recycling new age mantras, about self-transformation of the psyche and other things which were once a component of magic but not the main event. It has become light, fluffy and peppered with images of crystal unicorns and rainbows with practitioners who insist on renaming themselves like Rob Wind-Breaker, Melissa Wolf-Spirit.

Many “magicians” are now those who have read a few books and might do a couple of rituals a year while claiming that they are working on their personalities to tackle actual or perceived neurosis.

When you compare this image of the modern magician with those who followed the hermetic current from the dawn of time you see our problem here.

Historically magicians were not nice.  They were often bad tempered distant times who did not play nice with others.  Sure they might have overcome some of their “issues” so that they could function in the real world but the real adepts I have met were not saccharin types pretending to be Jesus or Buddha.

A magical adept is a person who is most themselves. To put it simply.

“I did not choose to incarnate into this form of existence to be Jesus or Buddha. Something else has already done that job – my only purpose is to be Nick Farrell and I have to do that to the best of my ability.”

Life is a story and you are the hero. You cannot steal someone else’s character in this story you must be you, otherwise your story is going to fail. Heroes cannot suddenly say “I don’t want to kill this dragon, I think I will take up origami instead” equally stories are full of the dangers of walking off the path.

Therefore, a magician is one who says this is my path, I am who am and from that the story begins. If I fail at something in my life that is part of the story from which I have climb back. This is the opposite of the New Age self-improvement victim blaming myth which says all things are caused by bad thinking. While the New Ager might say “shit happens to me because I caused it” a magician says “shit has happened I have to change it.”

These two attitudes lead to different life approaches.  A New Ager would say “that person is poor because of the bad decisions in their life, they need to visualise and think more positively.”

The Magician says “this person is in a difficult part of their story, what can I do to help.”

But one of the problems we have with 21st century magic is that it is system of thought which has not been defined. If you ask a modern magician “what is magic” they will confidently quote Crowley that “Magic is the Science and Art of causing Change to occur in conformity with Will” or Dion Fortune that “Magic is the art and science of changing consciousness at will.”

These definitions have one thing in common.  They do not define magic at all.

Magic does cause change to occur in conformity with will but so does flicking a light switch.  No one constructs a ritual to create a cup of coffee, they get water, fill up the coffee machine and put coffee in. If it is my will to have coffee I do not need magic.

Dion Fortune’s definition leans heavily on psychology and implies that magic requires changes of consciousness, but the reality is that it doesn’t, some magical techniques involve changing conscious but not everything involves going to the inner planes or getting into a relaxed state.

Let’s prove it by all doing a really basic magical ritual to get something we really want – something simple.

Before we start the key thing about this experiment is the Divine name IAO – Iota, Alpha and Omega which is pronounced Ee AH Oh.  As a name it is associated with Christ in revelation saying I am the Alpha and Omega… the beginning and end.  But the name is much older than that.  First it was the Greek at-tempt to phonetically say the Hebrew name of god, Tetragramatron, Yod Heh Vav Heh. Before that though it was a divine name of Jupiter and was uttered in the Greek Mysteries.  In Greek Magical Paprii it is one of the names of power for the divine light.  In the Golden Dawn tradition it is the name which brings down the divine light and unites God with Matter… so it is very powerful.

So let’s first have a crack at vibrating it because it is key part of this little ritual we are going to do.

(audience vibrates IAO)

So lets have a think about something small that we might want, it might be that we would like a bit more cash, love, or anything really.  For the purposes of this experiment it does not matter.  Just some-thing you want.

Now think of an image of that thing.  If it is money, like most of you are thinking about now see it as a simple gold coin, if it is general love see a symbol of a valentine, if it is someone specific see an image of them kissing you… you get the general idea.  Now visualise that symbol rising up in the air until it is half-way between you and the roof.

Now look to the ceiling and imagine a sphere of white light.  This represents all you expect from God, just abstracted.

Now vibrate the name IAO three times at the white sphere.

Now I want you to vibrate the letter I and see white light descend from the ceiling hit the image of the thing you want

See the white light hit that image and it comes alive now vibrate the letter A

Now see the image and the white then come down and connect to your aura and vibrate O.

Time will tell if you get what you desire and we would like to hear back from you, after all we just got a theatre full of people doing a magical experiment and it would be rather good to know what happened.

So what is it that you learnt from that ritual?

Firstly, you did not change consciousness, you connected with something to make something happen.  You did not actually change anything, at least not immediately.  There was no divine will you were obey-ing your personal will to get something you wanted and you were effectively negotiating with the divine to get it.

So we get closer to understanding what magic is when we start to think of it as a god. In fact the Ancient Egyptians personified Magic and called it Heka.  He was depicted as a man with his arms in the form of an old pre-digital TV aerial.

If you are a monotheist you can see it as god in action. Either way Magic is the raw energy of God in action which the magician is trying to direct in a way he or she wants.

If you go back through time to the first magicians, who were probably shamans, the central part of what they were doing was working with spirits and gods.

And here we come to the central issue of the 21st century. Most occultists become very uncomfortable when you start talking about God. Most of this is due to a bad experience in their upbringing.  Some mix and match things they like from one religion while rejecting most of the key parts of it. Others adopt all the attitudes and morals of Christianity, but project it on to a new Goddess or God. But the vast majori-ty, like many in the 21st century see themselves as spiritual rather than identifying themselves with a specific religion.

As someone who walked away from Christianity in my late teens, I really understand that, but if magic is an interaction with Heka then it is something we need to overcome.  It might help if we work out what a God is.

Personally I see God as an abstract infinite field of intelligent energy which creates a universe within itself as part of its process of trying to understand itself.  Because humanity is conscious it is dimly aware of its divine nature. So it has some of the same characteristics of that intelligent and conscious divine field of energy.

Before we visualised God as a ball of white light which was total abstract. Humans have attempted to understand that un-unstandable ball of light   through-out their evolution.  Infinity is too big.  So what they did was break it up into different functions and give each a mask.  Because we have some of those divine creative qualities in ourselves those masks became “real.”  Ancient humans terrified by a lightning storm made that aspect of God into Zeus, or Jupiter, or YHVH and started to build up myths and stories about those gods to explain those powers. Priests appeared to regulate the worship of these gods.

However, a magician has a different view of Gods which is not quite the same as religion.  The magician knows that they are masks.  They know that they are bit and powerful, and can be activated by worship, but they don’t worship them.

The fantasy writer Terry Pratchett put it well when he said:

“Most witches don’t believe in gods. They know that the gods exist, of course. They even deal with them occasionally. But they don’t believe in them. They know them too well. It would be like believ-ing in the postman.”

To that I would add that the magician respects the gods and will often stand in awe of them, but the role of the relationship is different.  The Magician works with the Gods.

We can see that in the difference between a magical invocation and a prayer. On the surface, they are similar.  Both tend to start by stating how big and powerful the God is.  For the follower, such statements are simple devotion. To quote Monty Python:

“Oh Lord, oooh you are so big. So absolutely huge. Gosh, we’re all really impressed down here I can tell you. Forgive us, O Lord, for this dreadful toadying and barefaced flattery. But you are so strong and, well, just so super. Fantastic. Amen.”

But for a magician the statements are aligning themselves to those power aspects of the mask which they are hoping to turn into the ritual.  Moreover, they are taking those divine titles and weaving them into the form of a god about them.

So if you take the Priest in the Roman Catholic Eucharist rite, he will take the wafer and ask god to make them into the blood and body of Jesus.  Compare that with the Golden Dawn Magical Eucharist where the “priest” takes on the godform of Osiris and does it himself.

I am Osiris Onnophris who is found perfect before the Gods. I hath said: These are the elements of my Body perfected through suffering, glorified through trial. The scent of the dying Rose is as the repressed sigh of my Suffering. And the flame-red Fire as the energy of mine undaunted Will. And the Cup of Wine is the pouring out of the blood of my heart, sacrificed unto Regeneration, unto the newer life. And the bread and salt are as the foundations of my body, which I destroy in order that they may be renewed.

In a magic ritual then the magician takes on the form of a god to do the work. So today we are going to see what it feels like.  I am going to give you a technique which is stage one in God form working.

So what I want you to do is shut your eyes and relax.  Just hear the sound of my voice and concentrate on your breathing.

Now visualise a small statue of a god or saint or angel which you are familiar with.  See it as about 30 cm.

In your mind’s eye draw it to your groin centre or chakra.

Now imagine your own personal divine light (which is a white sphere over your head)   This is your slice of god which you carry around with you.

Imagine a line of light from that divine source send a line of white gold light down you your back and connect to the statue. Silently say the name of the god you have visualised.

See the statue start to breath and come alive.

With each in breath I want you to see energy come down that line of light into the statue and for it to get bigger

… and bigger

Until it has grown to just below your eyes. The statue’s eyes are shut.

With your mind reach out to the god form inside you connecting with that ancient divine force.

Now allow your consciousness to enter the statue so you become the god.

When I say “now” I want you to open your eyes and see the world as the god sees it.


You are the god looking through the eyes of a human.

Now shut your eyes again.  Thank the god for taking part and with draw from the statue

See the white light withdraw from the statue and see it begin to shrink

And shrink

Until it becomes a tiny dot

Now open your eyes as a human again.

The practical use of this experiment is to take on the divine force of the god in a ritual.   So that when the magician wants something happen it is not them that is asking, but the God itself.

If you think about it, I am too small in the scale of the universe to make anything happen outside my own sphere of control.  But as a god I have the power to negotiate with other gods, or beings.

Throughout the Egyptian Papyri we here this technique constantly used.  The magician says “It is not me that does this but the God who does this.” “It is not Nick Farrell that orders you to change the orbit of the Sun, but it is Helios the god of the Sun who orders this.”

Now one thing you will have realised from your little experiment is that while you might have felt the power of the being you invoked into your Aura there was nothing there which could be remotely called worship.

In fact, the priest of any religion would say that what you had just done was heresy.  You are not supposed to USE the god, you are supposed to reverentially worship it at a distance and, if you are really lucky, that God might not smite you, or may give you a blessing.

Using that technique I just gave you, the magician can stand in sacred space as the God and re-negotiate creation.

A magician works with the Gods, sometimes using one God to order another about. You have a paradox – the magician acknowledges the Gods and their power and yet at the same time is directing them in the same way that someone might turn a stage light onto an actor.

What is more, when a magician uses these divine forces, he or she does not care which is the right religion. Instead of taking a Richard Dawkin’s approach saying all religions are wrong, and god does not exist, the magician says all religions are in some measure true and all Gods exist.

Another important modern magical tool which has been re-discovered and refined under the influence of modern psychology is pathworking.

Pathworking which is broadly the magical use of imagination has been around since the shamanic period. When we look at some of the descriptions of magical events we are very often looking at a pathworking which has been adapted for a ritual.  For example, in the Egyptian Papyri there is process to obtain a divine assistant.  Part of the ritual involves you sitting on your roof until a hawk delivers a special stone which you carve a sacred image upon it. Having tested it both ways I can tell you that the chances of a hawk showing up anywhere let alone with a rock which is capable of being carved is remote.  But, if you invoke Horus and imagine a Hawk coming down from the sun and blessing a rock you have found (which is conveniently flat and is easy to carve) then you get the same magical effect without spending the rest of your life sitting on the roof for a hawk to show up.

Magical journeys to the underworld which are described in myth are clearly pathworkings.  Homer wrote a very vivid description of an underworld magical rite where Odysseus journeys to a specific magical spot does a ritual and then pathworks meetings with the dead.

Pathworking can be a mixed bag. Some of them are just nothing more than barely controlled daydreams but others speak deal truths about ourselves which are more powerful and direct than any oracle or dream.  Still others allow us to interact with divine powers. But magic traditionally had a problem.  While it knew that some pathworkings were real and true, there was no way to separate the sheep from the goats. For example, if a 19th-century magician dreamt of being attacked by a black dog while defending a small girl that since the black dog was a symbol of the Dog Star and the small girl would represent Virgo. Psychology would ask “who is the dreamer and what do they understand by those symbols?” While the symbolic approach would provide a very interesting and esoteric response, the psychological model would give a more practical answer.

As I wrote in my book “Magical Pathworking” pathworking has become more flexible thanks partly to work carried out in the 1970s by psychological researchers. By partly applying the psychological model to pathworking we can see that some of what we imagine is driven by the desires and wishes of the lower self. Sometimes this can be useful, particularly when we are trying to understand our subconscious desires but magically they are less interesting.

The psychological model started to make an impact on magic in the 1930s. It had champions such as Dion Fortune, Paul Case and Israel Regardie. To them, and modern magicians, it provided an explanation of occult processes of the mind. It was especially good at pinpointing those processes which stood in the way of successful living and magical attainment.

If we were doing a ritual and something happens it is vital to rule out any psychological quirks as influencing the working. Divine beings rarely say what we want to hear, so if they suddenly start telling you that you are the new messiah and are going to be the prophet of a New Aeon, and people for generations will be looking to you as the way shower of a new religion then you know that is your ego talking.  Likewise, if you have sudden visions of a past life where you were a high Tibetan Lama, or High Priest of Atlantis and are now some sad alcoholic who can’t get a partner and is doing the same sort of magic you did 30 years ago then you are desperately wanting to be superior so are projecting it back to an imaginary time when you might have been.

We can now define two different types of pathworking the first is subjective which works within a person’s inner kingdom and tells a magician all about themselves and their complexes and wishes.

For example, it was not possible to identify that some esoteric experiences might be fulfilling important, repressed, unconscious desires rather than being an objective spiritual experience. As WE Butler pointed out, a modern psychologist would see some of the experiences of Christian saints as neurotic complexes often based on sexual repression.

The psychological approach also provided an excellent explanation of the processes that a student suffers during the beginning of their training. Teachers with some understanding of what their students were dealing with could help them overcome psychological issues which might have otherwise been misidentified as magical ones. Magical methods could be applied to these psychological processes, like the ones I described in my book Magical Imagination.

But as psychologists started to enter in the magical arena and define or dismiss all magical experiences in psychological terms they started to undo the important parts of magic.  Magical spirits, contacts, gods suddenly became complexes. The complex, and problematic, work of mediation with divine entities was effectively written off as a form of elaborate talking to yourself.

Nearly 50 years after the event, Regardie dismissed the channelling of the Golden Dawn secret chiefs in the Bristol vault as a pointless sub-conscious masturbation, even if they correctly said it was his mission to seed the Golden Dawn current in the US.

But the writing off all occult experiences as subjective and therefore open to psychological interpretation is dangerous. If it is “all in your head,” esoteric experiences are reduced to a nihilistic horror where perception is everything, and there is nothing other than what you experience in your own mind. It is unsurprising then that rather than tempering ego, the psychologically minded occultist has become a basket case of narcissism.

These pathologies of psychology attempt to place the study into the spiritual realm where it does not belong. While useful for mapping the lower aspects of Yesod, it has started to comment on Tiphareth and beyond. It has crossed the line of being helpful and become something to be discouraged. If occultists do not believe in a subjective occult experience, where there are spirits, angels, and gods out there, then they certainly will not have one.

Now let’s look at the role of the occult training in the 21st century. Occult Order in the 21st century which is certainly past its sell by date.  Many occult orders were based on a German book called the Crata Ropia which carefully arranged the grades of the Egyptian mysteries for different groups to follow. It showed the transformation that a magical student had to undergo as part of their magical path.  I published a translation of it because it was important to understand some of the spiritual processes found in the Golden Dawn, which used it as a background document.

The only problem was that we know that Egyptian society and the mysteries were never like Crata Ropia suggested. The book was a hugely influential 18th century masonic fantasy. While the book was forgotten, its teachings remain in the orders it influenced.

Formal Occult Orders are still around, particularly in the United States, but those in Europe have suffered badly simply because the premise that they were founded upon – the ability to impart secret information and wisdom appears to have faded due to the mistaken belief you can find all occult information in Google.

This is unfortunate because an occult order would take a student through a step-by-step process through the information while at the same time doing magic upon them so that they could take the load of the levels of information. Magical experience is not the acquiring of information.

The modern internet magician lacks that realisation and often thinks that they can do magic at a level which is impossible for a beginner because it has become accessible. It is a bit like saying I can be a brain surgeon because I have read a few books on it.

But magical training is a slow unveiling where you get better and better until you have got the hang of it, have a few short years of being useful and train someone else and then you die having advanced the path one step on.

These seven stages are 1. A basic intellectual understanding of the concepts. 2. Practicing the basic concepts. 3. Obtaining and working with your spiritual guide or contact. 4.Obtaining and working with your divine self. 5. Developing spiritual techniques for yourself. 6 working for the good of humanity or your community.  7. Preparing yourself to meet the infinite.

For this to work you need a human teacher – often several. This is another part of the tradition which has suffered from the fact that in the 19th and 20th century esoteric teachers were presenting themselves as being gods and therefore their words were set in stone. So if Dion Fortune, or Alistair Crowley had a daft idea about the nature of reality then their students were expected to believe it. A student who was dependant on the intellectual knowledge their teacher imparted to them was not going to get much in the way of other information so believed it completely. If you read some of the ways Crowley treated Victor Neurenburg you can see how dangerous this situation was. This deification of esoteric teachers in that period continues even today.

I wrote a biography called King over the Water about one of the founders of the Golden Dawn Samuel Mathers. In the book, I did not exactly say he was “as mad as a box of frogs” but I did hint that he was a lazy, eccentric, autocrat with right-wing leanings who had proto-nazi friends. One esoteric Golden Dawn group which claimed descent from Mathers launched a huge public campaign against the book, demanding it be burnt because it did not show Mathers as the occult messiah it saw him.

But this occult image making has become incredibly difficult to pull off since the Internet arrived. In fact, few modern occultists with an internet connection see their teachers as gods. An occult teacher who writes a book, or sets up a group will find themselves with followers and people who will make it their life’s work and hound them for the slightest perceived offence. The modern Golden Dawn, which started in 1979, was destroyed as a practical esoteric movement because two internet literate people decided to form Golden Dawn orders and obliterate all the competition.  This created the internet perception that the Golden Dawn is fractious and groups fight all the time. It is false, but that is the sort of perception that will stain the Golden Dawn as a working group forever.

All this caused students to be hyper-critical of their teachers.  In many ways this  is fair enough – discrimination is one of the most important early lessons on the magical path. In fact, in the early days of magical history you tended to stick with your teacher because, although he might have been a complete idiot.  finding a magical group or individual was nearly impossible.

Now the internet gives students the illusion that there are a lot of good teachers out there and they are competing for students. If a teacher challenges a student too much (and all the good ones do) the student just leaves.

Another issue is that there is very little financial support for teachers any longer.  Many students are so worried about falling for confidence tricksters they view any payment to a teacher for a course or workshop with suspicion.

In the 20th century teachers got around this by writing books.  It was possible to make a living from the occult book market with many occult books managing to sell 10-20,000 copies.  Now an occult writer is lucky to sell 4,000.  It can take two years for someone to write an occult book and if they are lucky they will make 3,000 euro from the exercise.  To make matters worse that 3,000 will be spread over a decade.

In the 1980s another method of teaching appeared – the workshop. These too were a way of supporting teachers while providing a very good method of learning techniques.  However, these dried up completely as students did not want to pay.

So now we have a situation where teachers train a smaller number of students who they train as a service. Very few write books and fewer train people in workshops. Sadly this also means that the chances of there being other Dion Fortunes, Samuel Mathers or Alistair Crowley’s being ever discovered is remote. I will give you an example. Donald Kraig wrote one of the most influential training manuals of the 21st century. I might not have agreed with a lot of it but it was influential. He died two years ago and his wife could not even afford his funeral expenses, Hermetic Golden Dawn leader Chic Cicero was dragged through the  courts by one of his students who trademarked the Golden Dawn name and was insisting that he run the order. When most have retired he is still working to pay his court bills because most of his students would not help out.

All these changing attitudes mean that Occult orders have also changed.  The big public groups such as BOTA, AMORC, OTO and the Golden Dawn are still there, but they are not the forces they once were. They have been replaced by much smaller groups centred around the ideas of one teacher. The good ones are a lot harder to find and even harder to get into. This is because although occult information has become easier, real occult training is just as hard as it ever was.

On the plus side, Occult groups are however much better networked.  A group like mine is connected to lots of other groups and we talk often to other occult leaders.  There is a sharing of information, training and techniques.  Suddenly as a teacher I can ask another teacher for help if I don’t know the answer to a student’s question. Unlike many 19th century occult teachers I don’t have to pretend to know everything.  I also do not have the problem of having to stop my own spiritual path because I teach. I can remain learning and developing my system.

So where does this leave magic in the 21st century?  The truth is that it is entirely in the hands of students.  There does need to be some changes. Firstly we need to find religion in magic again, we need to understand better what magic is and finally we need to support those who have the skills to teach, instruct and write better.

Then rather than the weakened new age flavour of magic we can create magic with an edge which fuses the historical and other data which we have found in the 21st century about the magic of the past, and develop a spiritual magic system which helps humanity develop.




Venus Cloacina — the purification goddess… and poo

Venus Cloacina was the Roman goddess of sewers and she is a darn useful Goddess to have a contact with.

She originally came from Etruscan mythology and is a truly ancient force was a spirit of a small stream called the Cloaca which ran through the early Roman Forum. Rome was city built on a marsh and the Cloaca stream, which drained into the Tiber, was said to have seven tributary brooks that drained all the valleys of the Esquiline and Quirinal hills.

Where now the Forum lies, were pools of water and marshland,
Streams from the Tiber’s flood swelled high the banks of this brook…
Where now through the Velabrum processions move toward the Circus,
Was nothing but willows and reeds that shook in the wind. Ovid’s Fasti (VI, 401ff.)

The Tarquins, early Kings of Rome dredged the stream and lined it with stone to make a drainage canal and eventually covered it over to become the main drain of Rome. The course of the original waterway and tributary streams dictated the layout of the buildings and streets of the Forum.

The name Cloacina means “the Purifier”, and the word cloaca became the word for “drain” or “sewer”; in time Cloacina became the Goddess of Sewers the Cloaca Maxima (a huge network of sewers that kept the huge city of Rome clean.

While sewers are smelly and horrible, Venus Cloacina was the goddess of purity, because she cleaned it all out. She was also the goddess of all filth and the protector of sexual intercourse in marriage.

Rape of the Sabine Women

This might have something to do with the Sabine wars, in which the early men of Rome, who had few women among them, raided the nearby Sabine people, kidnapping and raping their women and forcing them to become their wives.

The Sabine King Tatius attacked Rome but was later reconciled to peace by the kidnapped women and the participants were purified with myrtle branches, a plant very sacred to Venus.

To commemorate the occasion, a statue of Venus Cloacina was later put up in the Forum called the Sacrum Cloacina in front of the Basilica Aemilia; directly above the Cloaca Maxima. Pliny says that before the shrine was built there had grown a myrtle-tree on the spot, and myrtle is sacred to Venus.

It was little more than a platform, eight feet in diameter. As the Forum’s street level was slowly raised, and many successive layers of stone have been found at the base of Cloacina’s shrine. It was remodelled or raised several times.

This shrine was located right over one of the main drains of the Cloaca Maxima, where two branches met up. Rectangular stairs led up to the platform on the north-western side; the platform itself was edged with a low openwork railing, and within this were small statues. There was a manhole directly into the sewer in the small temple.

They were of two draped Goddesses, either both Cloacina, or Cloacina and Venus, each with Her right hand on an incense-burner or small column; one of them held a flower in Her left hand.

Only the circular foundation of this shrine remains; but it was depicted on several coins of the first century BCE, so we know what it looked like. Romans like Julius Caesar were happy to share her image on their coins.

One Prayer offered by a Roman to Cloacina included:

Cloacina, goddess of the tide,

Whose sable streams beneath the city glide

Indulged the modish flame, the town she roved

A mortal scavenger she saw she loved.”

Terry Pratchett set his novel Dodger in early Victorian London based around a kid who lives in the sewers. The Goddess of Sewers, called the “Lady” plays a big part in his life and is based on Cloacina.

A magician with a Cloacina contact can use her remove blocks, shadow aspects of personality and shitty things.

Another practical use is that after a brief invocation you can tip stuff down which need to end up in the underworld down the loo or into a storm drain. All those wax smudges left over from candle burnings and intention papers which normally require a trip to a cross roads for Hekate or Mercury to handle.

Cloacina can be an underworld guide and is particularly useful at psychological work.  Basically, she can help you process your shit, particularly if you are full of it.

The Whare Ra warrior legend – Andrew Hamilton Russell

One of the most interesting Whare Ra members was Andrew Hamilton Russell (23 February 1868 – 29 November 1960) who is one of New Zealand’s great military heroes.

Having served with the British army in India in August 1892, he got bored and returned to farming in Hawkes Bay. He helped form the Farmer’s Union and became involved conservative politics in NZ.

In 1899 he raised a militia for the Boer War (the Wellington (East Coast) Mounted Rifles Regiment), although he did not go with them to South Africa.

He was a lot more hands on in 1913 when he was the leader of a Massey’s Cossacks which was a cavalry unit formed from famers who aggressively put down striking workers. His troops were farmers who wanted to show these commo city types who was boss.

Russell was one of the founder members of Whare Ra in 1914 and was named as Dr Felkin’s successor as Grandmaster of the Order of the Table Round when Felkin died. He was installed in the role but had to resign when WWII broke out he resigned.  Reginald Gardiner was installed as the third Grandmaster in his place. The official record is a little confused as to how long Russell was the Grandmaster of OTR, claiming that he had to resign at the outbreak of WW1, however Felkin was still alive at that point and still the Grandmaster.

History might have looked unfavourably upon the strike breaking Russell had he not brilliantly led the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade upon the outbreak of World War One, and rose swiftly to high command during the Gallipoli Campaign.

He commanded the ANZAC evacuation from Gallipoli, and went on to achieve further distinction as the commander of the New Zealand Division on the Western Front in 1917 and 1918. He effectively turned the NZ forces into the best in the line despite disastrous campaign decisions by other British commanders. What made him different from his British counterparts was he could put his hand up and admit he made a mistake as he did after the First Battle of Passchendaele which killed more NZ soldiers in a single day than any other event.  With artillery hampered by rain and mud, an attack on Bellevue Spur faltered, leaving more than 800 New Zealanders killed and almost 2000 wounded or missing. This represents the highest recorded loss of New Zealand lives in a single day,  He nearly was killed by a German sniper who managed to pierce his helmet when he was visiting a forward trench.

Russell was a strict disciplinarian, and dealt with deserters by having them shot. The five he ordered executed were later posthumously pardoned in 1980.

Never the less he returned home loaded with titles and was hailed in Maori, as ‘Ariki Toa’, The Fight Chief Sent Forward To Lead.”  Golden Dawn historian Tony Fuller said that Russell handed Whare Ra his bayonet which was used as the sword of the Heirus which seems rather appropriate.

After the war he spent two years in bed recovering. During WW2 Russell became the Inspector General of New Zealand Military Forces, before retiring again in July 1941, aged 73.

Russell’s military achievements were recognised with a CB in 1916 and, in 1917, a KCB. He was awarded the French Légion d’honneur (croix d’officier) and Croix de guerre (avec palme), the Belgian Ordre de Léopold (commander) and Croix de guerre, the Serbian Order of the White Eagle (first class) and the Montenegrin Order of Danil

Russell died at Tunanui on 29 November 1960, aged 92, and received a funeral service with full military honours. He was survived by his wife, three daughters and a son. The Obituaries on his death note  that he was widely read, fluent in French (he read Proust in the original), an enthusiastic cellist, an opera lover, and a brilliant conversationalist. Despite these gifts, Russell, a man of strong Anglican religious convictions, was self-effacing and modest. Of course it fails to mention that he was senior adept in the Golden Dawn tradition.

Why whitewashing Crowley is a bad idea

Crowlyite followers are celebrating some anniversary of Aleister Crowley at the moment and there seems to be an effort to whitewash some of the Great Beast’s darker aspects.

It is well known that Crowley was anti-Semitic, misogynistic, bully who tortured and exploited his students. However, there is now an attempt to paint him as a “man of his time” who was nevertheless attempting to push back the boundaries.

This is the pop-culture Sergeant Pepper’s view of Crowley which has nothing to do with the real person, who would look with much contempt at those who see him as a counter-culture icon.

One of the more obvious things that people have been doing is scouring what Crowley has written for “proof” that he was none of the things people said about him. For example, the anti-semitic label can be dismissed because he once wrote: “No people can show finer specimens of humanity. The Hebrew poets and prophets are sublime. The Jewish soldier is courageous, the Jewish rich man generous. The race possesses imagination, romance, loyalty, probity and humanity in an exceptional degree.”

However what needs to be set against this are more damning quotes like: “A similar case is presented by the Jew, who really does only too often possess the bad qualities for which he is  disliked; but they are not proper to his race” and “In the previous spasm she had rushed to the registrar the most nauseating colopter that ever came under my microscope. It was a Whitechapel Jew.”

What is more dangerous is that this racism leaks into his teaching. For example he identifies the “evil” form of Aries rising as Jewish: “One must further remark that each sign governs two main types … the active and the passive. Thus Aries: the high brows, long face, aquiline nose, tall thin muscular figure, shows the fiery and martial qualities of the sign. But there is an evil and averse counterpart corresponding to the ovine nature. We have the gross, hooked, pendulous proboscis; the thick, flabby, moist lips; the patient stupid eyes, and timid, hunted gait of the bad type of Jew.”

Crowley was also a conspiracy nut believing in the Protocols of Zion and repeat some of the allegations as fact. In his “Preface to Sepher Sephiroth”, originally published in Equinox 1:8. Written in 1911 he wrote:

“Human sacrifices are today still practised by the Jews of Eastern Europe, as is set forth at length by the late Sir Richard Burton in the MS. which the wealthy Jews of England have compassed heaven and earth to suppress and evidenced by the ever-recurring Pogroms against which so senseless an outcry is made by those who live among those degenerate Jews who are at least not cannibals.”

For those who came in late, Jews were frequently accused of ritual sacrifice, murder, and cannibalism in Eastern Europe since the Middle Ages is called “the blood libel against the Jews” — a malicious falsehood (libel) that claims that Jews drink the blood of human victims as part of their rituals — that ritual human sacrifice is part of Jewish religion.

Those seeking to white wash Crowley quote him saying this about the Chinese: “I realised instantly their spiritual superiority to the Anglo-Saxon, and my own deep-seated affinity to their point of view.” After meeting the consul of Tengyueh: “We met with a warm welcome at the consulate from Litton’s Chinese wife, an exceedingly beautiful woman with perfect manners. They had five charming children.”

Compare that to the following: “One cannot fraternise with the Chinese of the lower classes; one must treat them with absolute contempt and callousness.”

What we see in these conflicting quotes, and there are many, that Crowley might respect individuals but hate the race in general. For example, the Solicitor-General of Ceylon, the Hon. P. Ramanathan, was a “man of charming personality, wide culture and profound religious knowledge” yet the people were “idle irresponsible people, purring with placid pleasure.”

So, what about the concept that Crowley was just a “man of his time and class.” There was nothing unusual about being a racist bigot then, everyone was.
However, that is historical re-positioning of the type that gets on my tits. Sure, you can find evidence of backward racism in that time, but in the style and to Crowley’s level you should start reading racists condemned by both mainstream conservatives and liberals alike. It is important remember that Crowley was not American, and the racism of the UK was different, and less obvious, from that of New World. A US clansman would be as unwelcome among the English aristocratic far-right of Crowley’s time. For Crowley to write that sort of stuff crossed too many lines.

This blog cannot deal in detail with Crowley’s obvious hatred of women which are often white washed with long quotes from the Book of the Law about how important women were. However there are darker quotes which suggest that is largely meaningless:

“… morally and mentally, women were for me beneath contempt. They had no true moral ideals. They were bound up with their necessary preoccupation, with the function of reproduction. Their apparent aspirations were camouflage. Intellectually, of course, they did not exist. Even the few whose minds were not completely blank had them furnished with Wardour Street Chippendale. Their attainments were those of the ape and the parrot. These facts did not deter me. On the contrary, it was highly convenient that one’s sexual relations should be with an animal with no consciousness beyond sex.”

Unless Crowley were a southern back-woodsman, this sort of mindset was long out-of-date and completely out of keeping with the equality suggested by both the Golden Dawn and his own magical teachings.

What most people do not want to understand when they read Crowley is that they are not looking at a 1960’s love guru with progressive views. Just because someone takes drugs and sleeps around with different genders does not make them progressive. There are many gay right-wingers (usually full of self-hate)

In fact, Crowley wanted a new aristocracy which could pursue long-range goals without the encumbrances of pandering to democratic whims. Crowley described a government following a Thelemic course as one in which, far from a hedonistic free-for-all, “set[s] limits to individual freedom. For each man in this state which I propose is fulfilling his own True Will by his eager Acquiescence in the Order necessary to the Welfare of all, and therefore of himself also.”*

Victor Neuburg bullied

My view of Crowley is not that he was an evil black magician, but someone who did some good stuff but failed to deal with his own stuff. This unbalanced before he started to deal with the heavy stuff. While it was wrong for him to be blackballed from the GD for being gay, I am not really sure that was entirely the reason. He was a young arrogant twat, who developed without guidance to be an old autocratic arrogant twat who knew a bit about magic. His inherent anger and violence against students like Victor Neuburg, coupled with his messianic megalomania undid a lot of his cleverer stuff. What Crowley was doing was not hedonism or free thinking, it was compulsive and destructive.

Whitewashing this out of Crowley, presumably to keep him as the 1960’s guru image does him no service. Not only do we get an incorrect assessment of the person, we are unable to fix his mistakes.

Indeed, while justifying him, you repeat his mistakes. There are Thelemites who think it is ok to treat women like sex slaves because Crowley did it. I have a friend who suffered appalling at the hands of the Canadian OTO for the crime of being a strong woman.

Fashionable fascism is now a thing worldwide and Crowley’s teachings are a magnet for those who consider themselves hedonistic libertines. Unless Crowley’s fascist, white-superiority and backward leanings are shown for what they are, then there is a danger they will corrupt and contaminate any chance of a spiritual awakening from those who follow that way. Crowley could become the justification for every right-wing autocratic bullying occult leader to give in to their psychology.

* Crowley, The Book of Wisdom or Folly, Samuel Weiser, 1991, Liber Aleph Vel CXI, De Ordine Rerum, clause 39.


Sorry, you can’t be alt-right and a member of the Golden Dawn

A debate has started on Facebook about me banning a couple of people from a GD discussion group for disseminating alt-right ideas.

Some people think that the issue is political and you should not be talking about politics on a Golden Dawn chat group anyway.  While there is some truth in this, for me the issue is NOT political at all. Alt-Right ideas are not political at all but are the antithesis of everything the Golden Dawn represents.

Stripping away “political” ideas of alt-right we are still left with the following fundamental beliefs which are alien to the core of the Golden Dawn:

  • The superiority of white males.
  • Hatred of Jews and Muslims and homosexuals.
  • A misogynistic opposition to “feminism” which is a call for women to adopt traditional roles.

The Golden Dawn founders were familiar with these views as they were typical of those which surrounded them in the late Victorian period.  However, they were explicitly outlawed by the Golden Dawn which wanted to move away from them. Firstly, the Golden Dawn wanted to see equality between the sexes within magic. It is possible to make a case that the GD was formed for that purpose. It paid dividends to the GD as some of its most significant ritualists and teachers were women. A GD adept is sworn to protect equality within the order. Someone holding misogynistic views, or who wants women to get back to a support role to men, therefore, would not be allowed to take the 5=6 oath.

Religious intolerance of any type is forbidden in the 0=0.  All religions are said to “contain a light of the highest of which you seek.”  So if you attack Jews or Muslim beliefs, you are insulting the Higher which manifests through them.

Lastly, the Order teaches at that all things come from one thing and humanity is part of a single divine being. What race is Adam Kadmon?  If you are saying white males are superior, you are disconnecting yourself from the unity which is the human race.

Working against unity, against humanity, is not the path of a Golden Dawn magician. It is the path of something darker. So, this is why alt-Right types are unwelcome within the Golden Dawn tradition. This goes over and above any political beliefs that might be held about “guns,” “family,” “global warming” “abortion” etc.

Of course, there might be some modern GD groups that disagree and allow race-hate, sexism, homophobia and intolerance amongst its members.  It is just that in my little patch of the post-GD garden we frown upon such things. To me it is a bit like a Satanist wanting to be a Roman Catholic – there are fundemental reasons why such a mix is impossible. Personally I think that the Golden Dawn, despite is age is not the voice of conservative magic but rather liberal.

The Whare Ra Etheric Link ritual

Whare Ra differed from the other Golden Dawn groups because of a little ritual called the Etheric Link. The ritual was given out after the 7=4 and was supposed to provide a direct connection to the Rosicrucian current.

The Link ritual was obtained by Robert Felkin from Rudolf Steiner when the latter was still a Rosicrucian. There are several theories as to where Steiner obtained the ritual, which are historically interesting, but not the subject of this article. I am more interested in what the Link does and what it represented at Whare Ra. Please note that these are my ideas, and are not official and are up for debate.

The Golden Dawn writer Pat Zalewski once said that the Etheric Link ritual represented the end of a process which started in the 0=0. There the candidate is linked to the current as part of the rite. It is strengthened at each initiation and always as part of the egregore of the order. Finally, in the 7=4, the candidate gets their own version of the link which is independent of the Order.

In theory, this means that the candidate can form their own order, or go off and do their own thing. Note this does not mean that they are allowed to go off and form another Whare Ra temple. That required a note from the chief of the order, a note from their parents, and at least three forms of ID and a utility bill. Golden Dawn researcher Tony Fuller has said that in different periods of Whare Ra history the Link was given only to chiefs or those who might one day become chiefs. However, the link later was given to others normally after the 7=4. In fact we have evidence of this in the form of the two great initiators of the post-Whare Ra adepts Frank Salt and Jack Taylor who were not order chiefs (however senior they were in Whare Ra) but had the link and did pass it on to their students.

Tony Fuller has found evidence that the Felkin used to give the link out at any point in the second order where the candidate needed it. (Often at 5=6) although he did give it to Westcott at 6=5 (he also gave him the 5=6 and the 7=4) . At some point it was bumped up to 7=4 with Jack Taylor referring to it as a capping off process. This could suggest that either the later chiefs felt it too powerful for a 5=6 and/or discovered something new about it which Felkin either did not know or had not spotted.

So the question is what IS the link and what did it do?

Felkin believed that the ritual gave the candidate an etheric link to Christian Rosensenkreutz so that the person became his “son” and “spiritual heir.” This is a spiritual leadership role within the Rosicrucian movement. CRC was the initiator and the creator of the Rosicrucian Order. So in many ways it was the right to initiate into the Second Order of the Golden Dawn.

This provided Felkin’s order with a Rosicrucian connection which gave it legitimacy.

In this context, it was important for Felkin who needed to establish a Rosicrucian link which was better than whatever it was that Mathers was offering. While it is possible it is unlikely that the link was written by Steiner and may have some connections with earlier masonic/Rosicrucian bodies, what the physical link ritual did became irrelevant.

It is the nature of magic that something which appears as one thing can be transmuted over time into something else. New Zealand was disconnected from the European occult scene and here was a ritual that patched its adepts into the Hermetic and Rosicrucian current – the Western Mystery Tradition. To the adepts who accepted the link it became something else.

It was not going to provide them with the authority of lineage, at least not in the sense that a mason would understand it. But then, they did not need it – they had Whare Ra and that was not really going anywhere.

Firstly, it gave them the power to initiate into the second order. When you perform a second order initiation you have to make several connections at the same time. You have to connect to the egregore of the second order and also the divine. The Godform of CRC acts as an intermediary between these two forces, forging a chain between god, the order and the candidate.

The connection with CRC represents the Rosicrucian tradition and the position as a son of CRC enables the initiation to take place.

This chain though is connected through history and not just Rosicrucianism, but all those orders and magicians which gave birth to that particular movement.

One initiate’s experience of the link ceremony was that it opened up a vortex in front of him, like a time tunnel.

“I saw CRC, but it went much further back. I followed it until I found myself besides a great river near a mud hut with rough wooden statue of Thoth outside. An Ibis landed on the river and I realised that this was the birth of Hermeticism.”

Another person told me that they felt the link was like a long huge Akashic library in which all occult knowledge was written. A book was each adept’s contribution to the Great Work.

Another who was less impressed with his experience said he had the impression of the age of an ancient tomb and a person who was old was watching him.

One thing you notice is that the experience of the link is subjective but the symbols are similar – ideas of profound knowledge spanning back over time.

Another thing about the link is, like many initiations, sometimes it “takes” and sometimes it does not. If it does not there is nothing bad. The person’s occult work is always focused in service within the order which gives them the link. They do not need to draw on information, or energies which do not come from that.

When the link takes there is a desire to research and to create your own contribution to the tradition. To be your own link in the chain. It might be to be a leader, or it might simply be a desire to share your slant on the mysteries with your students. You will train your students until they are ready for you to pass the link onto them so that the Chain of Hermes is never broken.


Time for a democratic heaven

I was reading a paper by Alessandro Roccati, of the University of Turin in which he suggested that demons were a reflection of the lower classes in society. He noted that while demons tend to get talked about using street language, gods tended to get addressed in the formal language of the higher classes (in this case he was talking about Egyptian). Throughout human history, the structure of the divine hierarchy has reflected the political systems of human society.

This evolution exists in magical texts with the move to feudalism having a direct impact on the structure of the status of demons and angels. An Angel or demon might be a Duke of heaven or hell.

So, I started thinking – why did this evolution stop?.  Civilised societies don’t have autocratic divine-right monarchs any more, so why do magic systems still uphold them, when do things get more democratic?

For some reason, this development ends abruptly with the rise of democracy and the nation state. It seems curious that humanity had worked out that the divine right monarch system no longer worked, but seemed to believe that it did for Gods and angels?

It is not difficult to update the religious hierarchies to match a democratic human government, yet for some reason, no-one attempted it. It is as if, following Homer, magicians said: “A multitude of rulers is not a good thing. Let there be one ruler, one king.” Possible reasons for this are:

1. Magicians are not progressive and look to the past rather than the present or the future.
2. democratic governments were “weak and human” next to the glories of a divine court or a platonic rule of the elite.
3. Magicians were part of a conservative society that secretly holds to ideas of platonic rule by an elite team of occultists rather than democratic “mob rule.”
4. There is a belief that the universe is not democratic and cannot be represented by such a hierarchy.

All four of these reasons are somewhat weak and miss a significant magical opportunity for magicians. If divine hierarchies were adapted to follow more democratic systems, then we are allowing heaven and earth to match each other. Our political regimes might benefit from divine wisdom (as above so below).

In a medieval society if you were against the king you were a traitor and therefore “evil” in a democratic structure the forces which opposed evolution and light would be the “official opposition.” Their job would be to keep the forces of light from calcifying (something which is seen when a government stays in power too long). However, it would remove good and bad guys from the equation. The universe would be created and sustained by an interaction between the forces of light and darkness rather than a war. If the two sides have equal powers, then the final vote will be decided by the Prime Minister who appoints a cabinet. The situation would not be party politics but an ideal democracy where the best person for the job would be appointed (much like the war council in the UK during WW2), but decisions would be made by the final democratic body of spirits. The good part about it is that since they are spirits and daemons, they are not going to need to play political games but will instead focus on function.

The question as to who or what would rule is ultimately moot. There is always going to be One Divine being, but it is going to be removed from government (much like a constitutional monarch or president). It might be relatively stable too because the government works, its ministers are not going to be embroiled in corruption scandals or get caught by the tabloids sticking their sexual organs in dead pigs. However, like parliamentary democracy, it would be more efficient at making decisions.

The operative part of democracy is that not only do politicians vote, but we get a chance to choose the government. If we think about it, this has largely happened. We have seen the more religious daemons take a back seat to those who offer more secular “things” and objects. It should be possible to see the changes in humanity and the planet regarding a democratic history of heaven.


Alt-Right needs to learn from history before lecturing others

While I am relieved that the Alt-Right is taking a sudden interest in history whenever they open their mouths they are repeating some howlers and clearly history is new to them. Here are several which crossed my news feed this week.

1. Hitler was not a socialist… sure his party was called “national socialist” but names mean very little in that way. Hitler did not, as all socialists did, nationalise property. Stalin who was a socialist did nationalise property. National socialism was German fascism.

2. The Great Pyramids were not built by slave labour (other than in Hollywood movies) They were built by skilled labourers in the off-season. Not only where they paid, but they also had a comprehensive medical scheme which would be the envy of many modern Americans. All this has been found by the recent archaeology of the labour “camp” for the pyramids which was actually a temporary town.

3. While there were other reasons for going to war, The American Civil war was mostly about the right to keep other human beings as property – something which was outlawed in the rest of the civilised world. This view was laid out by confederate politicians at the time.,

4. Most confederate statues in the South were not built to commemorate the Civil War but were a statement by Southern Whites against Blacks. The first wave went up It was not until the turn of the century, as southern states began to enact so-called Jim Crow laws designed to deprive recently freed slaves of equal rights. The second wave were built as a reaction against the growing Civil Rights movement in the 1960s. As such they are not “historical” but are tools of oppression and incitement against blacks. This is not true in all cases. Some statues were set up as tools of reconciliation, but these are much rarer.

5. While some of the founding fathers including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington did keep slaves, it was not part of their movement. By 1781, however, Franklin had divested himself of slaves, and shortly thereafter he became the president of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. George Washington, freed as many of his slaves as he could saying he wanted a world where blacks and whites lived together as equals. Jefferson, rejected this vision. He acknowledged that slavery violated the natural rights of slaves he was worried that conflicts over slavery might one day lead to the dissolution of the union. The founding fathers succeeded in gradually abolishing slavery in the Northern states and Northwestern territories but permitted its rapid expansion in the South and Southwest. It is important to realise that this was many decades before the Civil War and attitudes had changed considerably.

6. U.S. General John J. Pershing never ended a wave of Muslim terrorism in the Philippines by executing prisoners with bullets dipped in pigs’ blood. It was about the only thing he did not do. Pershing’s slaughter of civilians and fighters at Bud Bagsak that all but ended the Moro Rebellion. It was a trick he learnt in the Indian wars… you don’t have a rebellion if your enemy is all dead.

7. George Soros was never a member of the SS. A picture which claimed to be Soros in a Nazi uniform was released Soros was born in 1930, thus, making him only nine years old when World War II began and 15 when it ended in 1945. Therefore, he could not have been that man nor have joined the SS, whose minimum age requirement was 17, even if he had wanted to. Moreover, Soros would have failed the SS requirement for pure “Aryan” heritage. Rather, Soros was a persecuted Jew in Nazi-occupied Budapest.  The bloke in the photo was a death camp soldier Oskar Groening, a Nazi who served at Auschwitz from 1942 through the end of World War II. Ironically Alt-right hates Soros because he finances left wing causes.

8. Counter-reformation Spain did not benefit from expelling is Jewish and Muslim population. I was told that moves to expel the Muslims from Spain made the country a world superpower. While it was a popular move, Spain’s glory days were coming to an end and this “white supremacist” move destroyed the Spanish economy. The move boosted the legitimacy of the Spanish Inquisition, whose stifling effect would be felt by the society until the 19th century. It also stripped 2% of Spain’s most urbane, educated and affluent inhabitants. At a time when Europe’s economy was shifting from agrarian to industrial economies, Spain could not afford this loss. The Spanish Inquisition managed to have 300,000 Muslims expelled a century later. The Jews went to more secularist, and tolerant London and Amsterdam where they established financial houses, and insurance companies… and made the countries into economic powerhouses. The expulsion of the Muslims or those who were forced to convert to Christianity was a crippling blow to the economies of Aragon and Valencia where there were not enough Christian workers. Spain collapsed into an economic rump state in Europe and a text book case as to why immigration is vital to the evolution of state.

The paperback Hermetic Tablet has been released

The PAPERBACK version of the Hermetic Tablet is now available here The Hermetic Tablet is an annual Journal of Western Ritual Magic where people, from all traditions, share their experiences. Some of the contributors are well known names in the occult field, while others are just those who want to share knowledge and experiences with the public.

This issue includes articles written by the following writers: Mike Magee, Aaron Leitch, Nick Farrell, Jayne Gibson, Tony Fuller, Wynn Westcott, R.W. Felkin, Harriet Felkin, A.E Waite. Ina Cüsters-Van Bergen Carman Lawrick, VH Soror MRMV, Eirini Tsotsou, João Pedro Feliciano, and Cynthia Caton The Hermetic Tablet covers a wide range of different subjects all related to Western Ritual Magic, including Goetia, Golden Dawn, Wicca, Theurgy, Angelic Magic, Ancient Egypt, and pagan ritual. There is something for anyone, from all spiritual traditions who wants to know about practical Western Ritual Magic